Typologies du terrorisme
 
     
 
Geneviève Ouellet 
2004
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Service canadien du renseignement de sécurité (SCRS)

  1. l'extrémisme religieux (la menace la plus sérieuse provient actuellement des extrémistes islamiques);
  2. le terrorisme parrainé par l'État (le régime iranien en est l'exemple parfait);
  3. la violence sécessionniste (l'extrémisme sikh et les mouvements séparatistes au Sri Lanka, en Turquie et ailleurs, par exemple);
  4. l'extrémisme intérieur (comprend, entre autres, certains éléments des défenseurs des droits des animaux, les antimondialistes et les tenants de la suprématie de la race blanche).

Activités terroristes

Motivation

Agents

Activités

Remarques

Nationalisme - séparatisme

Mouvements séparatistes et mouvements pour l'autonomie régionale; prétendants au pouvoir s'appuyant sur l'origine ethnique

Violence intercommunale liée à l'opposition au gouvernement; attentats contre des ONG et des casques bleus

Des accords ont été conclus dans certains conflits européens qui durent depuis longtemps déjà; les conflits se poursuivent en Asie, au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique sub-saharienne.

Extrémisme religieux

Intégristes extrémistes de toutes croyances religieuses

Attentats contre des cibles civiles faisant un grand nombre de victimes

Plus grave menace au niveau international

Idéologie

Extrémistes de droite et de gauche (skinheads, racistes, antiracistes, milices anarchistes)

Propagande haineuse; actes de violence liés à l'opposition aux immigrants; attentats à la bombe

L'opposition violente aux immigrants a atteint un sommet en Europe au début des années 90; il s'agit en grande partie d'une menace américaine, mais des attentats ont été commis récemment au Royaume-Uni.

Cause particulière

Défenseurs des droits des animaux, écologistes et extrémistes opposés à l'avortement

Sabotage, lettres piégées

Menace considérable pour l'industrie pétrolière

États terroristes ou parrainant le terrorisme

Régimes oppressifs

Sabotage et utilisation d'armes chimiques

 

 
     
 

SCHMID, JONGMAN ET AL (1988: 40)

Principles of distinction :

  1. actor-based
  2. victim-based
  3. cause-based
  4. environment-based
  5. means-based
  6. political-orientation-based
  7. motivation-based
  8. demand-based
  9. purpose-based
  10. target-based
 
     
 

YEHEZKEL DROR (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 43)

International terrorism:

  1. imported terrorism ("by and on behalf of aliens");
  2. transient terrorism ("by aliens and against aliens");
  3. extraterritorial terrorism ("against external representatives, properties, and symbols of the democracy")
 
     
 

WILLIAM L. WAUGH, JR. (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 43)

3 types of international terrorism:

  1. spillover terrorism ("the use of violence by foreign nationals against foreign individuals or property")
  2. integrated internal terrorism ("The distinguishing characteristic ... is the difference in the nationalities of the terrorists and the victims, one group being indigenous to the host state")
  3. external terrorism ("The distinguishing characteristic ... is that the terrorists are located or the act is committed outside of the territory of the target government, i.e., in the jurisdiction of another government").
 
     
 

DAVID CLARIDGE (1996: 52-53)

Model of a state terrorism

  1. it is systematic
  2. it is actually or potentially violent
  3. it is political
  4. it is committed by agents of the state, or by proxies who operate with the resources of the state
  5. it is intended to generate fear
  6. it is intended to communicate a message to a wider group than the immediate victim(s)
  7. the victim(s) will not be armed and organised for aggression at the time of the incident
 
     
 

MICKOLUS, SANDLER AND MURDOCK (1989 : xvii)

Types of Terrorist Incidents :

  1. Kidnapping
  2. Barricade and hostage seizure
  3. Occupation of facilities without hostage seizure
  4. Letter or parcel bombing
  5. Incendiary bombing, arson, Molotov cocktail
  6. Explosive bombing (dynamite or plastic)
  7. Armed attack employing missiles
  8. Armed attack - other, including mortars, bazookas
  9. Aerial hijacking (skyjacking)
  10. Takeover of nonaerial means of transportation (e.g., a ship or bus)
  11. Assassination, murder
  12. Sabotage not involving explosives or arson
  13. Exotic pollution, including chemical and biological agents
  14. Nuclear-related weapons attack
  15. Threat with no subsequent terrorist action
  16. Theft, break0in of facilities
  17. Conspiracy to commit terrorist action
  18. Hoax
  19. Other actions
  20. Sniping at building, other facilities
  21. Shoot-out with police
  22. Arms smuggling
  23. Car bombing
  24. Suicide car bombing
 
     
 

ANTHONY KELLET ET AL (1991: 31-38)

Tactics Support Activities: Targets : Terrorist Event Types :
- Arson
- Assassination
- Assault
- Bombing
- Fire Bombing
- Kidnapping
- Hijacking
- Hostage-Taking
- Sabotage
- Product Contamination
- Demonstration
- Extortion
- Fraud
- Possession of weapons
- Possession of drugs
- Possession of stolen goods
- Possession of explosives
- Vandalism/Mischief
- Propaganda
- Robbery
- Traffic (arms)
- Traffic (drugs)
- Transit of funds
- Training
- Theft
- Public : Monument, business, club, public place, private citizen, religious, general public
- Facilities/Services : Communications, energy, medical, education, transportation, media
- Government : Postal, military, political, criminal, justice, other government
- Foreign : Diplomatic, Foreign
- Other : Other, Unknown
- Left-Wing
- Right-Wing
- Nationalist/Separatist
- Emigré
- Religious
- Single-Issue
 
     
 

MATTHEW J. LITTLETON (1995)

Terrorism Typology

Conventional Terrorism

Technoterrorism

Cyberterrorism

Targets exist in "real" space

* Airlines
* Buildings
* High Profile individuals
* Low Profile individuals

Targets exist in "real" space with cyberspace and "real" space impact

* Electric Grids
* Computer Networks
* Telecommunications

Targets exist exclusively in cyberspace with "real" space impact

* Telecommunications
* Computer Networks
* Control Networks

Creates physical threat

Creates physical and "virtual" threat

Creates physical and "virtual" threat

Weapons:

* Explosives
* Guns

Weapons:

* Explosives
* Guns

Weapons:

* Malicious Software
* EMP Weapons
* (For date manipulation or destruction)

Techniques :

* Bombings
* Kidnapping
* Assassination

Techniques :

* Bombings
* Physical Destruction of Key Components

Techniques :

* "Virtual" destruction of targets in cyberspace
* Disabling of system software
* Overwhelming of control systems

Size of Group:

* Large Group = large potential impact
* Small Group = small potential impact

Size of Group:

* Large Group = large potential impact
* Small Group = smaller potential impact

Size of Group:

* Large Group = large impact
* Small Group = large impact

Large amount of money required for large impact

Moderate amount of money required for large impact

Small amount of money required for large impact

Physical risk is high for terrorists

Physical risk is moderate for terrorists

Physical risk is very low for terrorists

Value of state sponsorship:

* Money
* Equipment
* Training
* Basing
* Intelligence support
* Transportation

Value of state sponsorship:

* Money
* Intelligence
* Training
* Equipment
* Transportation

Value of state sponsorship:

*Intelligence

Role of the media: critical

Role of the media: critical

Role of the media: moderate

Laws are clear

Laws are clear

Laws are nebulous

Intel/Info requirements for success are low

Intel/Info requirements for success are moderate

Intel/Info requirements for success are vitally important

Communications vital for success and a vulnerability

Communications vital for success and a vulnerability

Communications vital for success and normally secure (encryption-global connectivity)

Disruption potential is moderate

* Coordinated/distributed attacks hard

Disruption potential is large

* Coordinated/distributed attacks difficult

Disruption potential is immense

* Coordinated/distributed attacks relatively easy

Type of Groups

* Nationalists-separatist-irredentist
* Issue
* Ideological
* Exile
* State/State-sponsored

Type of Groups

* Nationalists-separatist-irredentist
* Issue
* Ideological
* Exile
* State/State-sponsored

Type of Groups

* Nationalists-separatist-irredentist
* Issue
* Ideological
* Exile
* State/State-sponsored

Physical presence required for attack to be successful

* Borders matter

Physical presence required for attack to be successful

* Borders matter

Physical presence NOT required for attack to be successful

* Borders nonexistent

Attacks has effects

Attacks has diffuse effects

Attacks can have either focused of diffuse effects

Preventive/Response Measures

Conventional terrorism

Technoterrorism

Cyberterrorism

Deter

* Sponsoring State
- Military response
- Economic response

* Legal mechanisms

Deter

* Sponsoring State
- Military response
- Economic response

* Legal mechanisms

Deter

Who?

How?

Defend

* Physically "harden"targets (buildings)
* Prevent access to targets (airport security)
* Increase intelligence gathering

Defend

* Physically "harden"targets (buildings/ transformers/ pipelines)
* Increase intelligence on potential targets

Defend

* "harden"computer systems increased training in security
* Increased intelligence gathering

Disrupt

* Infiltrate groups
* Discredit leadership
* Communications

Disrupt

* Infiltrate groups (harder)
* Discredit leadership (if identifiable)

Disrupt

* Take away comm channels
*Prevent repeated access attempts

Preempt

*Strike groups before attacks

Preempt

*Strike groups before attacks

Preempt

*Strike computer with IW weapons
* Physically destroy computers or attack group members

 
     
 

STÉPHANE LEMAN-LANGLOIS (2004)

Typologie des actes terroristes à caractère religieux:

  1. Terroristes à objectifs spécifiques définis par leur religion : Le terroriste à objectif spécifique est engagé dans un combat violent contre une pratique ou une politique qu'il juge contraire à un quelconque principe moral défini par sa religion.
  2. Terroristes à objectifs colorés par la religion ou à identité religieuse : Nuance par rapport à la première catégorie, le terroriste à saveur religieuse vise des buts politico-sociaux inscrits dans un discours où la religion joue un rôle catalyseur, ou comme facteur d'identification des groupes (appartenance, opposition, tiers).
  3. Terroristes imposant leur religion : En simplifiant légèrement ces terroristes sont engagés dans des activités de contrôle social, généralement au niveau local. Leurs actions visent à forcer les individus qu'ils identifient comme appartenant à leur groupe religieux à respecter les dogmes, pratiques, rituels, etc. tels que compris par le terroriste.
  4. Terroristes religieux eschatologiques : Le terroriste religieux eschatologique poursuit des objectifs tellement lointains et démesurés qu'il sait à l'avance que ses chances de réussite sont faibles sinon nulles. C'est un combat de la vertu seule. Mourir en essayant est donc aussi valable que de réussir.
 
     
 

Stéphane Leman-Langlois et Jean-Paul Brodeur (2004)

Terrorist fundamental rationales 

Justification of action**
Scope of desired* impact
Narrow
Wide
Forward-looking
Demand-based terror
Revolutionary terror
Backward-looking
"Private-justice" terror
"Restoration" terror

*Likelihood of success or sensibleness of expectations and desires notwithstanding
**Internal moral justification; does not imply - or exclude - universal legitimacy

 
     
 

CLASSIFICATIONS SELON SCHMID ET JONGMAN

 
 
1. TYPOLOGIES BASÉES SUR L'ORIENTATION POLITIQUE
 
     
  LOESCHE (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 45)
1. national or anticolonial liberation movements
2. regional or separatist movements
3. social-revolutionary movements in industrialized countries
4. defensive associations to protect group privileges
5. opposition movements in dictatorial systems
 
     
 

BRIAN CROZIER (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 45)
1. ethnic, religious, or nationalist groups
2. Marxist-Leninist groups
3. anarchist groups
4. pathological groups or individuals
5. neofascist groups or individuals
6. ideological mercenaries

 
     
 

G. DAVIDSON SMITH (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 45)
1. nationalist-separatist-irredentist (includes ethnic basis)
2. issues
3. ideological
4. exile
5. state and state-sponsored
6. religious

 
     
 

RICHARD SHULTZ (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 47)
1. Revolutionary Terrorism
2. Sub-Revolutionary Terrorism
3. Establishment Terrorism

 
     
 

SCHMID AND DE GRAAF (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 48)
A basic typology of terrorism:
1. Political
1.1) Insurgent Terrorism
1.1.a) Social-Revolutionary Terrorism (left-wing, right-wing)
1.1.b) Separatist Terrorism (secessionist, ethnical, national, irredentist)
1.1.c) Single-Issue Terrorism
1.2) Vigilante Terrorism
1.3) State Terrorism
2. Criminal Terrorism
3. Idiosyncratic Terrorism (includes psychotic)

 
     
 
2. TYPOLOGIES FONDÉES SUR LES OBJECTIFS VISÉS
 
     
  THOMAS P. THORNTON (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 50)

Typology of the proximate objectives of terrorism:

  1. morale-building (within the terrorist movement itself as well as in that element of the population that is already sympathetic to the insurgents)
  2. advertising (not only calls attention to the existence of the insurgents but also serves as a reminder of their program and ideals ... The advertising function differs from morale-building in that it is directed towards a mass audience)
  3. disorientation (the objective par excellance of the terrorist, removing the underpinnings of the order in which his targets live out their daily lives)
  4. elimination of opposing forces (either physically or by neutralizing their effectiveness. In one sense, this is a byproduct of terror, for the aim in itself is not symbolic, it could be accomplished by murder) ... From elimination of a harmful individual, not only will general disorientation be promoted, but a more specific fear will be instilled into the group to which the victims belongs
  5. provocation of countermeasures by the incumbents (in combating an elusive terrorist, the incumbents will be forced to take measures that affect not only the terrorist but also his environment, the society as a whole. Although this result may be incidental to the aims of some terrorists, terroristic acts often are committed with the express purpose of provoking reprisals).
 
     
 

J. BOWYER BELL (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 50-51)

Six types of revolutionary terror:

  1. Organizational terror: every revolutionary organization, perhaps without exception, must face the problem of maintaining internal discipline, inhibiting penetration, and punishing errant members. ... To be most effective, punishment must be swift, harsh, and visible. It is therefore often highly formalized, with a trial, defense, sentence, and execution (IRA).
  2. Allegiance terror ... is a less restrained variant of organizational terror ... in order to create mass support (Algerian FLN).
  3. Functional terror ... is employed when in the course of an armed struggle it is necessary to gain strategic advantage through specific action (Bloody Sunday).
  4. Manipulative terror ... concentrates on exploiting the deed and escalating its impact ... (Palestine).
  5. Manipulative terror ... [is employed] to create a bargaining situation, in which the terrorists threaten to destroy seized assets or hostages unless they are granted certain demands.
  6. Symbolic terror ... must go beyond the organizational and functional and must select as a victim a figure who represents the epitome of the enemy. Yet the deed must be more than simple vengeance (ETA's murder of Carrero Blanco).
 
     
 

MARTHA CRENSHAW (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 52)

Typology of Acts of Terrorism

Proximate Objectives

Tactical Considerations

 

Target

Response

Discrimination

Morale building

Sympathizers

Enthusiasm

Irrelevant

Advertising

Mass

Curiosity

High

Disorientation

Mass

Anxiety

Low

Elimination

Victim and identification group

Despair and immobility

High

Provocation

Identification group

Fear

High

 
     
 

PHILIP A. KARBER (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 53)

 A Functional Typology of Terrorism 

 

Instrumental

Affective

Discriminate

Coercive Bargaining

Advertisement & Recruiting

Indiscriminate

Social Paralysis

Social Conscience

 
     
 

IRVING GOLDABER (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 54)


Typology of Hostage-Takers

 

Suicidal personality

Vengeance seeker

Disturbed individual

Cornered perpetrator

Aggrieved inmate

Felonious extortionist

Social protestor

Ideological zealot

Terrorist
extremist

 

Psychological

Criminal

Political

Who is the hostage-taker?

An unstable, hopeless, depressed individual in crisis

An otherwise ordinary person who is a disaffected former associate

An acutely or chronically unbalanced individual

Potentially any criminal

A frustrated, desperate leader who can organize other inmates

An unemotional, cunning, professional criminal

An idealistic, educated young person

A fanatic, programmed cultist

An individual willing to sacrifice himself for his political philosophy

What is his distinguishing characteristic or situation?

Doesn't care if he is killed

Is driven by an irrational single purpose

Manifest lack of judgment leading to an unsound assessment of reality

Is caught unaware with no prior plan for handling predicament

Is familiar with the setting, prison authority, adversaries, and his victims

Is knowledgeable about and respectful of police power

Is an exuberant celebrant in an uplifting group experience

Is willing to sacrifice himself for his beliefs

Has realistic assessment of impact of act

When does he take the hostage?

In a severe emotional, decompensating state

After meticulous planning

When his aberrant mind siezes on the idea as a solution to his problem

In desperation, when victims are available

After considerable planning, or spontaneously when pushed beyond endurance

While executing a carefully prepared plot

When he identifies the need to eliminate a social injustice

After he has sustained a wrong

When publicity potential is greatest

Where does he commit the act?

In any place when his defense fail

In a spot that brings him maximum satisfaction

In any setting

In the area in which he is trapped

In his own environment

In location of his selection

At the site of the unwanted entity or event or where the protest is most visible

Anywhere

Where victim is off guard

Why does he do it?

To cause someone else to fulfill his death wish

To gain revenge

To achieve mastery and to solve his problem

To effectuate escape

To bring about situational change or to obtain freedom

To obtain money

To create social change or social justice

To redress a grievance

To attain political change

How does he take the hostage?

With irrational taunts

Through overt action or furtive behavior

In an improvised, illogical manner

With a weapon and as a reflexive response

With planned, overpowering force

With a weapon, in a calculated manner

In a group by massing a human thrust or blockade

With robot-like violence or nonviolent conduct

With emotional and violence execution of crafty plot


 
     
  RICHARD SCHULTZ (in Schmid, Jongman et al., 1988: 55)

Multidimensional Typology

General categories

Selected variables

 

Causes

Environment

Goals

Strategy

Means

Organization

Participation

Revolutionary Terrorism

Economic, Political, Social, Psychological factors

Internal
(urban or rural revolutionary groups)

External (autonomous non-state revolutionary actors)

Long Range/ Strategic Objectives

Short Term/ Tactical Objectives

Primary or Secondary role in the overall strategy

Various capabilities and techniques employed

Nature – degrees of organizational structures

Participant profiles

Leadership style/ attitude

Sub-Revolutionary Terrorism

Economic, Political, Social, Psychological factors

Internal
(urban-rural non-revolutionary groups)

External
(non-revolutionary, autonomous, non-state actors)

Long Range/ Strategic Objectives

Short Term/ Tactical Objectives

Primary or Secondary role in the overall strategy

Various capabilities and techniques employed

Nature – degrees of organizational structures

Participant profiles

Leadership style/ attitude

Establishment Terrorism

Economic, Political, Social, Psychological factors

Internal
(repression of urban or rural opposition)

External
(aimed at other nation-states or non-state actors)

Long Range/ Strategic Objectives

Short Term/ Tactical Objectives

Primary or Secondary role in the overall strategy

Various capabilities and techniques employed

Nature – degrees of organizational structures

Participant profiles

Leadership style/ attitude

 
     
  RÉFÉRENCES NON ÉLECTRONIQUES :
  • Claridge, David (1996), " State Terrorism ? Applying a Definitional Model ", Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 47-63.
  • Kellett, Anthony et al (1991), Terrorism in Canada 1960-1989, User Report, No. 1990-16, Ottawa : Solicitor General Canada, Ministry Secretariat.
  • Leman-Langlois, Stéphane et Jean-Paul Brodeur (sous presse), " Terrorism Old and New:The Case of Canada, 1970-2000 ", Police Practice and Research.
  • Mickolus, Edward F., Todd Sandler, and Jean M. Murdock (1989), International Terrorism in the 1980s: a Chronology of Events. Volume 1: 1980-1983; Volume 2: 1984-1987, Ames (IA), Iowa State University Press.
  • Schmid, Alex P., Albert J. Jongman et al. (1988), Political Terrorism, A new guide to actors, authors, concepts, data bases, theories and literature, Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.
 
     
   
 
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